Substitution of PA for VA

Consider this when thinking about complement and substitute, “our data challenges pessimistic claims of a progressive substitution of offline activism for online protest: activists perform their actions both offline and online, using cyberspace as a new resources to increase their chances of success. There is no sign that offline and online environments as alternative to each other ” (page 186, Jnl Publ. Pol. ) from Porta and Mosco (2005) “Global-net for Global Movements? A Network for Networks for a Movement of Movements.” Physical activism is holding on strong!

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