Definitions and terms used for the Participatory Geoweb.
- Assertive information
contributed by someone who has not been extended that particular legitimacy. Assertive information is collected by everyday people or lay scientists (after Goodchild 2007). Often placed in opposition to authoritative information.
- Authoritative information
contributed by an official or someone who has been sanctioned (by an recognized agency). Authoritative information is collected by the public sectors, the private sector, and scientists (after Goodchild 2007). Often placed in opposition to assertive information.c
- Citizen Science
Activities in which volunteers, defined as individuals without formal scientific expertise, conduct research-based methods such as observation, data collection, measurement, analysis, or modeling. Citizen scientists may participate in formal scientific projects; they may formulate and perform research independent of scientists. They also may make policy recommendations.
- Citizen Sensors
One type of sensor network is humans themselves or citizen sensors according to Goodchild (2007). Humans have five senses and should be good observers of their local environment. Local observers are closer to phenomena than the scientists. There are more of them than the scientists. Presumably the local observers can identify changes in their environment; they are able to investigate those changes, and quickly respond to those changing conditions, for instance by reporting them. These individuals should be able to provide info as or more accurate than science.
- Crowd Sourcing
The completion of a task of digital data collection through the efforts of many volunteers. An example is the building of the digital road network of a nation in Open Street Maps. An exercise of collective intelligence. Crowd Sourcing is a model of data collection capable of aggregating talent, leveraging ingenuity while reducing the costs and time formerly needed to solve problems. (Brabhan 2008)d
- Digital Divide
From wikipedia, June 29, 2010: "the gap between people with effective access to digital and information technology, and those with very limited or no access at all. It includes the imbalance both in physical access to technology and the resources and skills needed to effectively participate as a digital citizen." For us, the wikipedia, June 29, 2010: "the gap between people with effective access to digital and information technology, and those with very limited or no access at all. It includes the imbalance both in physical access to technology and the resources and skills needed to effectively participate as a digital citizen." For us, the digital divide includes access to a range of platforms, from Internet to mobile technologies. It includes the availability of data to make effective use of those technologies (e.g., a coarse resolution digital background on Google Maps may make it difficult to effectively use that technology).">digital divide includes access to a range of platforms, from Internet to mobile technologies. It includes the availability of data to make effective use of those technologies (e.g., a coarse resolution digital background on Google Maps may make it difficult to effectively use that technology).
- Digital Earth
an Internet-based 3-D representation of the Earth that is geospatially referenced. Also known as a digital globe or virtual globe.e
“an increase in social influence of political power” (Corbett and Keller 2005: 93)
- Empowerment capacity
“aspects of the deeper process of change in the internal condition of an individual or community that influence their empowerment” (Corbett and Keller 2005: 93)g
- Geospatial Web
“Integrative, discoverable collection of geographically related web services and data that spans multiple jurisdictions and geographic regions” (Lake et al. 2007)
"The Geoweb provides the means for interconnecting individual GIS databases. Desktop GIS can access and ingest data that’s found on the Geoweb as well as publish data to it. We can consume services that reside on the web, and can integrate different perspectives through the common network that is the web.
The Geoweb framework provides the means of integrating our collective knowledge. While there are means of consuming and representing our data in globes and maps, the entirety of the Geoweb is not yet a GIS. The barrier at present is largely data access and discovery, particularly when looking at the popular geographic exploration systems. There’s no access to data at the database level to unlock metadata and the multiple attributes that have been collected about our world. There’s also a lack of analysis functionality." (Ball 2008)m
“diverse set of practices that operate outside, or alongside, or in the manner of, the practices of professional geographers. Rather than making claims on scientific standards, methodologies of neogeography tend towards the intuitive, expressive, personal, absurd, and or artistic, but may just be idiosyncratic applications of ‘real’ geographic techniques. Not to say that these practices are of no use to the cartographic/geographic sciences, but that they usually don't conform to the protocols of professional practice.”
(Gibson, 2008). See Turner (2006)p
- Participatory Geographic Information Systems
- Participatory Geoweb
Frameworks that evaluate applications of geographic information technologies on Web 2 .0 -- the Geoweb -- to engage the civil society in an open dialogue with government and others on the issues that affect people's lives.
- Public Participation GIS
a study of the applications of geographic information and/or geographic information technologies; used by members of the public, that is “non-officials,” both as individuals (read private citizens) and grass-root groups; for participation in public processes (data collection, mapping, analysis and/or policy-making) that affect their lives; and a normative field that should “do good”: whether it empowers marginalized peoples, promotes social inclusion, builds capacity, [or] furthers democracy. (Tulloch 2003; Sieber 2006)u
- User created content
- User generated content
- Volunteered geographic information
“Widespread engagement of large #s of private citizens, often with little formal qualifications in the creation of geographic information” (Goodchild 2007). A traditional example is the Audubon Society's Christmas Bird Count; more recent example is Open Street Maps.w
- Web 2.0
A phrase coined by the book publisher, O'Reilly, to describe the next generation of the web.
- Wisdom of crowds
The idea that mass number of volunteers generate accurate digital information. The sheer number ensure that data translates into knowledge and wisdom. The system is self-correcting: if there are errors then someone in the crowd will recognize the error and rectify it.