Planning 2.0

Papers, documents, and links on the use of Web 2.0 and the Geoweb in planning. Also some standard-bearers in Planning 1.0.

Arnstein, Sherry R. 1969. A Ladder Of Citizen Participation. Journal of the American Planning Association 35, no. 4: 216.

Brabham, D. C. (2009). Crowdsourcing the public participation process for planning projects. Planning Theory, 8(3), 242-262

Chaskin, Rober J. and Sunil Garg. 1997. The Issue of Governance in Neighbourhood-Based Initiatives. Urban Affairs Review 32(5): 631-661.

Community Viz and Community Planning Discussions at

Cuff, D., M. Hansen, and J. King. 2008. Urban Sensing: Out of the Woods. Communications of the ACM 51 (3): 24-33.

Devisch, Oswald. 2008. "Should Planners Start Playing Computer Games? Arguments from Sim City and Second Life". Planning Theory & Practice 9:2, 209-226

  • In his book Self-Organization and the City, Juval Portugali describes how, in the past sixty years, our conceptualization of cities has shifted from a portrayal as isolated, stable and transparent systems, into open, self-organizing and complex systems, and how the role of the planner has turned from that of an engineer who masters these systems into that of, at best, simply observers and participants. Though Portugali’s vision of the role of the planner might be too polemic, what is indeed an issue is that planners are in need of new tools that will enable them to be more process orientated, more geared towards communication, and encouraging of the involvement of multiple stakeholders, etc. Computer simulation models meet these requirements, but although they have indeed been adopted in planning practice, they have not become an indispensable piece of equipment. A very different story emerges from the gaming industry where, for more than twenty years, computer games have continued to attract millions of players, and have even entered classrooms and planning practices. Not only do these games look increasingly realistic but the behaviour of the characters within them has grown ever closer to resembling actual behaviour, to the extent that some commentators have even started to propose that planners should turn into gamers. Does this make sense, or is it still a bridge too far? In the search for an answer, this paper will critically analyse two computer games: Sim City, which is a classic strategy game, and Second Life, an increasingly popular social virtual world. I will make a number of suggestions as to how these games could be upgraded into planning simulation models.

Digital Urban

Drummond, W. and S. French. 2008. The Future of GIS in Planning: Converging Technologies and Diverging Interests. Journal of the American Planning Association 74 (2) pp. 161-174.

Martin’s Dodge’s website

ESRI's Spatial Round Table: Discussion about How GIS Meets Today’s Challenges.

Economist. 2008a. Identity Parade. The Economist Special Report Technology and Government. 14th February.

Evans-Cowley, J. 2010. Planning in the Age of FaceBook: The Role of Social Networking in Planning Processes. GeoJournal 75: 407–20.

Georgiadou, Y. 2008. Using geo-information: from a market to a polis perspective. Inaugural speech as incoming Professor of Geo-information for Governance, International Institute for Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation, Enschede, The Netherlands. 17 December.

Goodchild, M., & Glennon, J. (2010). Crowdsourcing geographic information for disaster response: a research frontier. International Journal of Digital Earth 3(3), 231-241.

Healey, Patsy. 1996. Collaborative Planning: Shaping Places in Fragmented Societies. London: Basingstoke Macmillan.

Innes, J. E. 1996. Planning through Consensus Building: A New View of the Comprehensive Planning Ideal. Journal of the American Planning Association 62: 460-472.

Innes, J.E. 1998. Information in Communicative Planning. Journal of the American Planning Association 64 (1): 52-63.

Lyall, S. 2007. Rural Britain wants to take itself off the GPS Map. International Herald Tribune, Europe on-line edition. 3 December 2007.

Mc Laren, R. 2009. The Role of Urban Sensing in Managing Megacities". Proceedings of the FIG Commission 3 Workshop: Spatial Information for Sustainable Management of Urban Areas, Mainz, Germany. February.

Miessen, Markus, and Shumon Basar. 2006. Did Someone Say Participate?: An Atlas of Spatial Practice. The MIT Press.

Next American City.

Nuojua, J. 2010. WebMapMedia: a map-based Web application for facilitating participation in spatial planning. Multimedia Systems 16: 3-21.

Robinson, Pamela J. 2006. Canadian Municipal Response to Climate Change: measurable progress and persistent challenges for planners. Planning Theory and Practice Interface 7(2): 218-223

Robinson, Pamela J and Christopher D. Gore. 2005. Barriers to Canadian Municipal Response to Climate Change. Canadian Journal of Urban Research 14(1): Supplement Pages: 102-120i

Roseland, Mark. 2005. Toward Sustainable Communities: Resources For Citizens And Their Governments. Gabriola Island, BC: New Society Publishers.

Ryan, Elizabeth. 2009. Interactive Urban Planning 2.0. Utne Reader. Posted 6/19/2009 4:55:40 PM